2009年7月26日 星期日

few, little, a few, a little

few, little, a few, a little

先看看few跟little使用上的差異,主要是所形容的對象是何種名詞
(記憶法:few的字數少於little,少到算得出來,多到無法計算)

few + 可數名詞(countable)
little + 不可數名詞(uncountable/mass)

範例 1:
There is still a little time left for the team to score an equalizer.(正確的句子)
There is still a few time left for the team to score an equalizer.(錯誤的句子)
由於time是屬於不可數名詞,所以必需使用little來形容time,本句的意思是「還剩下很少時間讓球隊扳平」

範例 2:
There were a few children in the playground.(遊樂場內只有數個小孩)

再來看看有加冠詞a跟沒有冠詞a的差異
(記憶法:a few比few多一個字a,當然就多一些些囉.少到一直被否定,多到大家都肯定)

a few / a little - 具有肯定的含義,還有一些的意思,勉強夠用(positive)
few / little - 為否定含義,剩沒多少,根本不夠用(negative)


範例 1:
I have a little money, enough for a hamburger.(我有一點點錢,吃一個漢堡包還可以)
I have little money, not enough for a hamburger.(我只有很少錢,連吃一個漢堡包也不夠)

範例 2:(a little只是說明數量較少,而little則強調數量少得可憐,少到不符人們的期望)
A little progress was made on the peace talk.(和談取得一點點進展)此句尚算是正面的評價.
Little progress was made on the peace talk.(和談取得極少進展)此句則是負面評價囉.

範例 3:
A few visitors were allowed to enter the parliament building.(數個訪客獲准進入國會大樓)
Few visitors were allowed to enter the parliament building.(甚少訪客獲准進入國會大樓)

範例 4:
I have a little wine.(我有一些紅酒)意思是所擁有的紅酒還夠請人喝.
I have little wine.(我有一點紅酒)意思是自己喝都不夠了.

一般來說,在little或few前面加上a,只會用在書寫上使用,較少用於口語上,因為有可能會造成誤會.
所以口語上會改用另一組字來表達「少得可憐」的涵意,就是hardly any 和not much/not many。
Hardly any (Not much/Little) progress was made on the peace talk.(和談取得極少進展)
Hardly any (Not many/Few) visitors were allowed to enter the parliament building.(甚少訪客獲准進入國會大樓)


練習題:
1.Do you want water?There is _____left in my glass.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

2.There are a lot of new books,But____of them are easy to read.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

3.Please hurry up,There is _____ time left.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

4.The box is very heavy,____of us can lift it.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

5.Don't worry,we still have____time left.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

6.There are____books left,We can't lend you any one.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

7.Li Ping has learned Russian for four years,and he can speak______Russian now.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

8.There is _____ink in my pen,Please give me______
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

9.Give me another cup of tea please,There is ____in this cup.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

10.Don't rush,There is still_____time left.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

標準答案:請看意見


可數名詞及不可數名詞的基本分辨方法:

方法一:
先將這個名詞所表示的東西分兩半,若分兩半後不能再叫原來的名稱時,可判斷為可數名詞.
但若分兩半後還可以叫原來的名稱時,則判定為不可數名詞.
如:
chair椅子: 分兩半後,這個椅子就壞了,不再具有原本椅子的功能了,因此我們判定它為可數名詞.
meat肉: 分兩半後,它還是肉啊,也還可以吃,所以我們判定它為不可數名詞. ( a piece of meat )

方法二:
不可數名詞沒有所謂的單數或複數形式,也就是說你很少會看到一個結尾是s的不可數名詞.
你也不會看到有個不定冠詞,a/an用在一個不可數名詞上.
如:
There is dirt on the floor.(地板上有泥土)
There is sand in your hair.(你的頭髮裏有沙子)

sand或許你曾看過有人寫sands但sands指的是沙攤或沙漠,意思上已改變了,其它的還有waters水域,winds大風,woods森木,times時代...etc.

a cake of soap 一塊肥皂
a bit of news 一件消息
a drop of oil 一滴油
a grain of sand 一粒沙
a pane of glass 一塊玻璃
a piece of advice 一條忠告
a pot of jam 一罐果醬
a sheet of paper 一頁紙


參考資料:
http://paper.wenweipo.com/2008/04/08/ED0804080010.htm
http://xueke.edudown.net/Article/gaozhong/yuwen/200609/648.html
http://www.ecp.com.cn/cc/x6/nwwd/20070406085730.htm
http://www.languageguide.org/english/grammar/cn/part2/non_count.jsp
http://www.slideshare.net/helenyan2002/g3

9 則留言:

史丹利 提到...

標準答案:
1.D 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.C、D 9.C 10.D

Love Trombone 提到...

很實用 感謝分享

Love Trombone 提到...

很實用 感謝分享

陳世興 提到...

謝謝,
既清楚又明瞭。

林霖洪 提到...

非常好

佩蓉 提到...

淺顯易懂 謝謝老師

佩蓉 提到...

淺顯易懂 謝謝老師

泯泯 提到...

簡單明瞭,謝謝

Yi Fang 提到...

非常實用且易理解 謝謝